★ Information technology - technology ..


Data format

Data format in information technology can mean: Video format, a format for processing video data. Data type, constraint placed upon the interpretation of data in a type system. File format, a format for encoding data for storage in a computer file. Audio format, a format for processing audio data. Recording format, a format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium. Content format, a format for converting data to information.



Packet may refer to: A small parcel e.g. Cigarette packet, Sugar packet. C-82 Packet, a U.S. military transport aircraft. Packet information technology, a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network. Packet sea transport, a packet service is a regular scheduled service, carrying valuable freight and first class passengers. Packet Newspapers - newspapers with the title including the word "Packet", after a place-name. Packet radio, a form of amateur radio data communications using the AX25 protocol.


★ Information technology

Information technology is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms.

Now, people have been using it to refer to other aspects of technology. It now covers many more fields of study than it has covered in the past.


1. History

Four basic periods Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication problems of the time:

  • Premechanical.
  • Electronic.
  • Mechanical.
  • Electromechanical, and.

1.1. History A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. – 1450 A.D

  • Writing and Alphabets - communication.
  • First humans communicated only through speaking and picture drawings.
  • The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels, the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.
  • 3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia what is today southern Iraq devised cuneiform.
  • Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols.
  • About 2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on the papyrus plant.
  • Sumerians input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay.
  • Paper and Pens - input technologies.
  • Around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based.
  • The Egyptians kept scrolls.
  • Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books".
  • Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.
  • Books and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices.
  • The First Numbering Systems.
  • The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1.000 as a lotus blossom.
  • Egyptian system.
  • The first place value numbering systems similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. in India who created a nine-digit numbering system.
  • Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.
  • The First Calculators: The Abacus.

One of the very first information processors.


1.2. History B. The Mechanical Age: 1450 – 1840

  • Invented the movable metal-type printing process in 1450.
  • The First Information Explosion.
  • Johann Gutenberg Mainz, Germany.
  • The development of book indexes and the widespread use of page numbers.
  • Actually people who held the job title "computer: one who works with numbers.".
  • The first general purpose "computers".
  • Slide Rules, the Pascaline and Leibnizs Machine.

Early 1600s, William Oughtred, an English clergyman, invented the slide rule.


1.3. History C. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 – 1940

The discovery of ways to harness electricity was the key advance made during this period. Knowledge and information could now be converted into electrical impulses.

  • Late 18th century.
  • The Beginnings of Telecommunication.
  • Voltaic Battery.
  • Early 1800s.
  • Telegraph.
  • Morse Code.
  • Dots and dashes.
  • Developed in 1835 by Samuel Morse.
  • 1876.
  • Alexander Graham Bell.
  • Telephone and Radio.
  • 1894.
  • These two events led to the invention of the radio.
  • Followed by the discovery that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated.
  • Guglielmo Marconi.

2. Electromechanical Computing

  • Mark 1.
  • Herman Hollerith and IBM. Herman Hollerith 1860–1929 in 1880.
  • Howard Aiken, a Ph.D. student at Harvard University.
  • Built the Mark I.
  • 8 feet tall, 51 feet long, 2 feet thick, weighed 5 tons, used about 750.000 parts.
  • Completed January 1942.


1.4. History D. The Electronic Age: 1940 – Present

  • Electronic vacuum tubes.
  • First Tries.
  • Early 1940s.
  • Eckert and Mauchly.
  • ENIAC, fixed, not stored, program.

3. The First Stored-Program Computers

  • Early 1940s, Mauchly and Eckert began to design the EDVAC - the Electronic Discreet Variable Computer.
  • John von Neumanns influential report in June 1945.
  • "The Report on the EDVAC".
  • Where the Manchester Mark I went into operation in June 1948-- becoming the first stored-program computer.
  • Max Newman headed up the effort at Manchester University.
  • British scientists used this report and outpaced the Americans.
  • Thus, EDSAC became the first stored-program computer in general use i.e., not a prototype.
  • Maurice Wilkes, a British scientist at Cambridge University, completed the EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator in 1949 - two years before EDVAC was finished.
  • The First General-Purpose Computer for Commercial Use: Universal Automatic Computer UNIVAC.
  • Late 1940s, Eckert and Mauchly began the development of a computer called UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer.
  • First UNIVAC delivered to Census Bureau in 1951.
  • Remington Rand.
  • But, a machine called LEO Lyons Electronic Office went into action a few months before UNIVAC and became the worlds first commercial computer.

3. The Four Generations of Digital Computing.

The First Generation 1951–1958.

  • Compiler language.
  • Vacuum tubes as their main logic elements.
  • Machine code.
  • Assembly language.
  • Rotating magnetic drums for internal storage of data and programs.
  • Punch cards to input and externally store data.
  • Programs written in.

The Second Generation 1959–1963.

  • Crystalline mineral materials called semiconductors could be used in the design of a device called a transistor.
  • AT&,Ts Bell Laboratories, in the 1940s.
  • Vacuum tubes replaced by transistors as main logic element.
  • E.g., FORTRAN and COBOL.
  • Magnetic cores very small donut-shaped magnets that could be polarized in one of two directions to represent data strung on wire within the computer became the primary internal storage technology.
  • Magnetic tape and disks began to replace punched cards as external storage devices.
  • High-level programming languages.

The Third Generation 1964–1979.

Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits.

  • Magnetic tape and disks completely replace punch cards as external storage devices.
  • Magnetic core internal memories began to give way to a new form, metal oxide semiconductor MOS memory, which, like integrated circuits, used silicon-backed chips.
  • Advanced programming languages like BASIC developed.
  • Operating systems.
  • Which allowed for home-use personal computers or PCs, like the Apple II and Mac and IBM PC.
  • Initially sold for $1.195 without a monitor, had 16k RAM.
  • The Fourth Generation 1979–Present.
  • Large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits LSIs and VLSICs.
  • Microprocessors that contained memory, logic, and control circuits an entire CPU = Central Processing Unit on a single chip.
  • Apple II released to public in 1977, by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.
  • First Apple Mac released in 1984.
  • Debuts with MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System.
  • IBM PC introduced in 1981.
  • MS Windows debuts in 1983.
  • E.g., VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, dBase, Microsoft Word, and many others.
  • Windows wouldnt take off until version 3 was released in 1990.
  • Graphical User Interfaces GUI for PCs arrive in early 1980s.
  • Fourth generation language software products.
  • Apples GUI on the first Mac debuts in 1984.

2. Field of Study

  • A Bachelor of Information Technology or BEIT) is an undergraduate academic degree that generally requires three to five years of study. While the degree has a major focus on computers and technology, it differs from a Computer Science degree in that students are also expected to study management and information science, and there are reduced requirements for mathematics. A degree in computer science can be expected to concentrate on the scientific aspects of computing, while a degree in information technology can be expected to concentrate on the business and communication applications of computing. There is more emphasis on these two areas in the electronic commerce, e-business and business information technology undergraduate courses. Specific names for the degrees vary across countries, and even universities within countries.

This is in contrast to a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology which is a bachelors degree typically conferred after a period of three to four years of an undergraduate course of study in Information Technology IT. The degree itself is a Bachelor of Science with institutions conferring degrees in the fields of information technology and related fields.

Many employers require software developers or programmers to have a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science degree, however, those seeking to hire for positions such as network administrators or database managers would require a Bachelors of Science in Information Technology or an equivalent degree. Graduates with an information technology background are able to perform technology tasks relating to the processing, storing, and communication of information between computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices. Information technology as a field emphasizes the secure management of large amounts of diverse information and its accessibility via a wide variety of systems both local and world-wide.

  • themselves. Information technology such as the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, has led to globalization. The word technology comes from
  • same way. There are special fields of study called information science information technology IT and data science. In the 1970s and 1980s, some
  • facts in the computer. Information technology Definition of Application Landscape Software Engineering for Business Information Systems sebis Jan
  • Freedom of information is the right to freedom of expression on the Internet and other information technology Freedom of information is the ability to
  • In Information technology a packet is collection of data that can be used by computers which need to communicate with each other, usually as part of a
  • 36316750 IONIS School of Technology and Management IONIS STM is a French private graduate school in information technology computer science, energy
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS is an American organization. It works with several federal agencies to unify the information gathered about different
  • Biotechnology Information NCBI is part of the United States National Institutes of Health. It has a database where scientists can put information for other
  • measures in information theory are mutual information channel capacity, error exponents, and relative entropy. This short article about technology can be
  • Information security is about protecting information so that people who should not have access to it cannot distribute, see, change, or delete it. Although
  • touch Existing computer technology to the human and computer information exchange has been used mainly audio - visual information However, the user through
  • of Virginia in the United States. It specializes in the use of Information technology in the humanities.The institute was founded in 1992 with money donated
  • find the information Encrypting the information is an important way to stop corporate information leakages. This short article about technology can be
  • Alphabet Inc., and then Intel. Information technology IT companies and high tech companies are subsets of technology companies. Marli Guzzetta. Why
  • share information about animals. The ISIS database has information on 2.4 million animals of 10, 000 species. ISIS members use basic information age
  • The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Communications Technology Innovation, and the Internet is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee
  • Information retrieval is a field of Computer science that looks at how non - trivial data can be obtained from a collection of information resources. Commonly
  • the contact information of people, companies, organizations, and places, in XHTML, Atom, RSS, or raw XML. This short article about technology can be made
  • infrastructure planning programs School of Information Computer and Communication Technology hosts information technology computer science, and Electronics
  • The Internet Movie Database IMDb is an online database of information facts about actors, movies, TV shows, and video games. The IMDb database started
  • plug - ins, to extract the information and transfer it to other applications, such as an address book. This short article about technology can be made longer
  • explosion of digital content has resulted in technologies to manage large collections of digital information generated by organizations. Such systems must
  • every 5 years. A census produces a large database and sometimes new information technology such as the use of punched cards for data, has been invented to
  • 2013. The term wireless technology is generally used for mobile information technology IT equipment. Examples include mobile phones, personal digital
  • Download means getting information from another computer or server. The opposite of downloading is uploading, which is sending data to another computer
  • database of information about cartoons, animated movies, and animated television shows. The Big Cartoon DataBase This short article about technology can be
  • A table of information is a set of facts arranged in rows and columns. It is a way of displaying information It requires a medium, such as writing or
  • which extracts the information from the waves. International Telecommunication Union Jim Hawkins Radio and Broadcast Technology Page WCOV - TV s Transmitter
  • original on 2 November 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2011. This short article about technology can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it.
  • unmanned space mission, usually a small spacecraft sent out to find out information about a planet or other far away thing. As a tool of space exploration

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