Copyright is a law that gives the owner of a work the right to say how other people can use it. Copyright laws make it easier for authors to make money by selling their works. It is one part of a group of laws about intellectual property. It helps protect authors from other people copying their works without permission and / for commercial purposes.
With copyright, a work can only be copied if the owner gives permission. If someone copies a work without permission, the owner can say they infringed their copyright. When this happens, the owner may sue for the amount that should have been paid. Most cases are handled by civil law. In more serious cases, a person who copies a work that is protected under copyright could be arrested, fined or even go to prison. Commonly, the copy-right law will protect the authors and their heirs from 50 to 100 years since the first day of the authors deaths.
In many countries, the governments tried to modify copyright law to meet international standards. However, there are still some differences, according to the law culture each country. In some countries, someone violating copyright law will be sued only to the civil law courts but other countries they can also be charged by criminal courts.
1. History of
Copyright was originally made in the 18th century for books. Before printing presses were made, books could only be copied by hand, which would take time. But when printing presses were made, books could be copied faster and easier. Because of this, some books were copied by people who did not own the book themselves. So lawmakers gave only owners the right to copy. National laws were somewhat standardized by international treaties.
Because technology got better over time, copyright began to cover other types of media such as pictures, sound, and film. Commonly, copyright violation warning would be shown at the beginning of the media to warn audiences against violating copyright law.
2. Who owns copyright
In most countries, authors automatically own the copyright to any work they make or create, as long as they do not give the copyright to someone else.
In most countries, there is no need to register the copyright, and some countries do not even have procedures to register copyrights. But, where registration is available, many authors register anyway, especially for works that are sold for money. That is because registration helps to prove that the copyright of a work belongs to a certain author.
If an author gets paid to make a work for someone else, the person who pays for making the work for example, the authors employer will often get to own the copyright instead of the author themselves. For example, if a person working for a company, Microsoft creates a new computer software program at work, the Microsoft company would own the copyright. It is very common that the company will instead register the copyright to avoid their employees from claiming their works.
3. Length of copyright protection
Copyright laws usually protect owners of copyright beyond their lifetime. In some countries, such as Canada and New Zealand, works are protected for 50 years after the last living author dies. In other countries, like the United States and the European Union, the protection lasts for 70 years after death. When the period of copyright protection has ended, the written document, musical composition, book, picture, or other creative work is in the public domain. This means that no one owns the copyright and everyone is free to copy, use and change them without having to ask for permission or pay the owner.
4. Fair use
There is an exception to the rules of copyright, called fair use. This means that people can copy a very small amount of a work to use in reviews or in research reports.
An example of fair use is when newspaper writers quote several sentences from a copyright-protected document to tell the story. Another example of "fair use" is when a university professor quotes several sentences from a copyright-protected book in a review of the book, or in a research report.
5. Copyright in different countries
Different countries have different copyright laws. Most of the differences are about:
- How much longer copyright lasts after the author dies or after the work is created or published, and.
- What is and what is not fair use.
- Whether or not the governments work falls under copyright.
Because of these differences, a certain piece of work may be under copyright in one country, and in the public domain in another.
6.1. Problems with copyright Creativity
Some people argue that copyright laws make it easier for people to make new works and think of new ideas. After all, if authors get to make money for the time, effort and money they put in, then they will want to make more works later, and make more money.
But others believe that copyright laws make it harder to be creative. Without copyright, other people could reuse existing work, and copyright law often stops that.
6.2. Problems with copyright Publisher control
If an author wants to sell a work, its often easiest to give the copyright to a publisher. The publisher will do all the selling, and in return for that service, will keep part of the money. But the publisher has many different things to sell, and they may not want to sell the work the author made. Authors often find it very hard to find a publisher willing to sell their work.
But without a publisher, it can be even harder for an author to sell his or her work. In many markets, a few big publishers own the copyrights to almost everything available, and stores will not want to sell works published by small authors themselves. Many people say copyright law helps big publishers stay in control, and keeps smaller authors out of the market. tragedy of the anticommons.
7. Open content
As a solution to these problems, groups of authors have come up with the idea of open content. With open content, authors give everyone permission to copy, change and give away or sell their works, as long as they follow certain rules. These rules are explained in an open content license. Some possible open content rules are:
- If a person publishes the changed or derivative piece of work, they must let others use it under the same free license.
- If a person changes the work, or if a person makes a new derivative work based on it, they must give the original author credit they must say who wrote it.
- Under some licenses, a person cannot sell the piece of work or use it to make money.
The term for Open Content is sometimes called Copyleft.
- Copyright infringement or copyright violation is the use of material which is covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the original copyright
- The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is a copyright law that protects copyright on the internet in the U.S.A. This Act was passed by the United States
- The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 CDPA c. 48 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It makes copyright law in the United Kingdom
- others. Those who hold the copyright get less money because of copyright infringement. As a result of this, some copyright holders publish anti - piracy
- details of this rule, as defined by the United States copyright law of the United States copyright law, is available. Such writings are not protected under
- on Copyright in the Digital Single Market is a proposed directive a type of special EU law that is aimed at protecting EU s existing copyright laws
- films, or paintings that are not under copyright protection. The opposite of public domain is copyrighted material, which is owned either by the creator
- creative work available for others to use and share. Their website allows copyright holders to give some of their rights to any other people. They still keep
- opposite of copyright but its purpose is the opposite of the purpose of the frequently seen copyright type of license which uses copyright to forbid changing
- company can give a license to a copyright that they own. So in order for another person to use an owner s copyright they need permission from the owner
- and launched in 2004. In 2005, book publishers sued Google for massive copyright infringement for scanning books without permission. Google claimed that
- Protecting copyright and patents. Censorship of the internet Health and safety Privacy Act 1988 - concerns data about people Copyright Act 1968 Copyright Amendment
- Aires Convention or Convention on Literary and Artistic Copyright is an international copyright treaty. It was signed at Buenos Aires on 11 August 1910
- when the Wikimedia Foundation rejected a copyright claim. The ground was that a non - human could not own a copyright and the camera owner had not taken the
- used in copyright law. It is a piece of work for example: a novel, a song or a painting that is based on what someone else created. Copyright law says
- people follow copyright laws. It works by using computer technologies. Many companies use DRM to protect their properties from copyright infringement
- and pretending that they are one s own work. It can involve violating copyright laws. College students who are caught plagiarizing can be expelled from
- well, such as Wikipedia. As a copyright license, the GFDL is a type of contract between the creator of a copyrightable work such as a book, an encyclopedia
- law to stop copyright infringement on the Internet. The law would give copyright holders new ways to deal with websites infringing copyright Critics said
- 1988 and Statutory Instruments are available free on - line under Crown copyright terms from the Office of Public Sector Information OPSI Parliamentary
- Mozilla Public License or the MIT License. This is the license: Copyright c year copyright holders Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
- they make, sometimes for money. The person that owns these things has a copyright for them, which means that person can decide who can copy their work.
- Gutenberg PG is an online project that offers a digital archive of copyright - free e - books in the public domain. It was started in 1971 by Michael S
- is the author of that name. In law, the author is the first owner of copyright Writer Journalist Lessig, Lawrence 2015 - 11 - 13 Free Culture. ISBN 978 - 82 - 690182 - 0 - 2
- Xlibris Corp., copyright 2006 Caleb Johnson pp. 160 162 Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers Indiana: Xlibris Corp., copyright 2006 Caleb
- may be a bad thing since many web sites include copyrighted lyrics without permission from the copyright holder. The United States Music Publishers Association
- above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice
- International Music Score Library Project Raises Copyright Concerns, New York Times, February 22, 2011 Music copyright in the spotlight. BBC News 2 November 2007
- 15: If copyright law doesn t change, all sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 will enter the public domain in the U.S. Copyright Term and
- only organization in Japan to manage and protect copyrights in Japan. JASRAC can only manage copyrights inside Japan. As for outside Japan for overseas
Creative Commons licenses
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
International Standard Name Identifier
Judith Ortiz Cofer
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