★ Copyright - creative works ..


★ Copyright

Copyright is a law that gives the owner of a work the right to say how other people can use it. Copyright laws make it easier for authors to make money by selling their works. It is one part of a group of laws about intellectual property. It helps protect authors from other people copying their works without permission and / for commercial purposes.

With copyright, a work can only be copied if the owner gives permission. If someone copies a work without permission, the owner can say they infringed their copyright. When this happens, the owner may sue for the amount that should have been paid. Most cases are handled by civil law. In more serious cases, a person who copies a work that is protected under copyright could be arrested, fined or even go to prison. Commonly, the copy-right law will protect the authors and their heirs from 50 to 100 years since the first day of the authors deaths.

In many countries, the governments tried to modify copyright law to meet international standards. However, there are still some differences, according to the law culture each country. In some countries, someone violating copyright law will be sued only to the civil law courts but other countries they can also be charged by criminal courts.


1. History of

Copyright was originally made in the 18th century for books. Before printing presses were made, books could only be copied by hand, which would take time. But when printing presses were made, books could be copied faster and easier. Because of this, some books were copied by people who did not own the book themselves. So lawmakers gave only owners the right to copy. National laws were somewhat standardized by international treaties.

Because technology got better over time, copyright began to cover other types of media such as pictures, sound, and film. Commonly, copyright violation warning would be shown at the beginning of the media to warn audiences against violating copyright law.


2. Who owns copyright

In most countries, authors automatically own the copyright to any work they make or create, as long as they do not give the copyright to someone else.

In most countries, there is no need to register the copyright, and some countries do not even have procedures to register copyrights. But, where registration is available, many authors register anyway, especially for works that are sold for money. That is because registration helps to prove that the copyright of a work belongs to a certain author.

If an author gets paid to make a work for someone else, the person who pays for making the work for example, the authors employer will often get to own the copyright instead of the author themselves. For example, if a person working for a company, Microsoft creates a new computer software program at work, the Microsoft company would own the copyright. It is very common that the company will instead register the copyright to avoid their employees from claiming their works.


3. Length of copyright protection

Copyright laws usually protect owners of copyright beyond their lifetime. In some countries, such as Canada and New Zealand, works are protected for 50 years after the last living author dies. In other countries, like the United States and the European Union, the protection lasts for 70 years after death. When the period of copyright protection has ended, the written document, musical composition, book, picture, or other creative work is in the public domain. This means that no one owns the copyright and everyone is free to copy, use and change them without having to ask for permission or pay the owner.


4. Fair use

There is an exception to the rules of copyright, called fair use. This means that people can copy a very small amount of a work to use in reviews or in research reports.

An example of fair use is when newspaper writers quote several sentences from a copyright-protected document to tell the story. Another example of "fair use" is when a university professor quotes several sentences from a copyright-protected book in a review of the book, or in a research report.


5. Copyright in different countries

Different countries have different copyright laws. Most of the differences are about:

  • How much longer copyright lasts after the author dies or after the work is created or published, and.
  • What is and what is not fair use.
  • Whether or not the governments work falls under copyright.

Because of these differences, a certain piece of work may be under copyright in one country, and in the public domain in another.


6.1. Problems with copyright Creativity

Some people argue that copyright laws make it easier for people to make new works and think of new ideas. After all, if authors get to make money for the time, effort and money they put in, then they will want to make more works later, and make more money.

But others believe that copyright laws make it harder to be creative. Without copyright, other people could reuse existing work, and copyright law often stops that.


6.2. Problems with copyright Publisher control

If an author wants to sell a work, its often easiest to give the copyright to a publisher. The publisher will do all the selling, and in return for that service, will keep part of the money. But the publisher has many different things to sell, and they may not want to sell the work the author made. Authors often find it very hard to find a publisher willing to sell their work.

But without a publisher, it can be even harder for an author to sell his or her work. In many markets, a few big publishers own the copyrights to almost everything available, and stores will not want to sell works published by small authors themselves. Many people say copyright law helps big publishers stay in control, and keeps smaller authors out of the market. tragedy of the anticommons.


7. Open content

As a solution to these problems, groups of authors have come up with the idea of open content. With open content, authors give everyone permission to copy, change and give away or sell their works, as long as they follow certain rules. These rules are explained in an open content license. Some possible open content rules are:

  • If a person publishes the changed or derivative piece of work, they must let others use it under the same free license.
  • If a person changes the work, or if a person makes a new derivative work based on it, they must give the original author credit they must say who wrote it.
  • Under some licenses, a person cannot sell the piece of work or use it to make money.

The term for Open Content is sometimes called Copyleft.

  • Copyright infringement or copyright violation is the use of material which is covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the original copyright
  • The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is a copyright law that protects copyright on the internet in the U.S.A. This Act was passed by the United States
  • The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 CDPA c. 48 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It makes copyright law in the United Kingdom
  • others. Those who hold the copyright get less money because of copyright infringement. As a result of this, some copyright holders publish anti - piracy
  • details of this rule, as defined by the United States copyright law of the United States copyright law, is available. Such writings are not protected under
  • on Copyright in the Digital Single Market is a proposed directive a type of special EU law that is aimed at protecting EU s existing copyright laws
  • films, or paintings that are not under copyright protection. The opposite of public domain is copyrighted material, which is owned either by the creator
  • creative work available for others to use and share. Their website allows copyright holders to give some of their rights to any other people. They still keep
  • opposite of copyright but its purpose is the opposite of the purpose of the frequently seen copyright type of license which uses copyright to forbid changing
  • company can give a license to a copyright that they own. So in order for another person to use an owner s copyright they need permission from the owner

  • and launched in 2004. In 2005, book publishers sued Google for massive copyright infringement for scanning books without permission. Google claimed that
  • Protecting copyright and patents. Censorship of the internet Health and safety Privacy Act 1988 - concerns data about people Copyright Act 1968 Copyright Amendment
  • Aires Convention or Convention on Literary and Artistic Copyright is an international copyright treaty. It was signed at Buenos Aires on 11 August 1910
  • when the Wikimedia Foundation rejected a copyright claim. The ground was that a non - human could not own a copyright and the camera owner had not taken the
  • used in copyright law. It is a piece of work for example: a novel, a song or a painting that is based on what someone else created. Copyright law says
  • people follow copyright laws. It works by using computer technologies. Many companies use DRM to protect their properties from copyright infringement
  • and pretending that they are one s own work. It can involve violating copyright laws. College students who are caught plagiarizing can be expelled from
  • well, such as Wikipedia. As a copyright license, the GFDL is a type of contract between the creator of a copyrightable work such as a book, an encyclopedia
  • law to stop copyright infringement on the Internet. The law would give copyright holders new ways to deal with websites infringing copyright Critics said
  • 1988 and Statutory Instruments are available free on - line under Crown copyright terms from the Office of Public Sector Information OPSI Parliamentary
  • Mozilla Public License or the MIT License. This is the license: Copyright c year copyright holders Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
  • they make, sometimes for money. The person that owns these things has a copyright for them, which means that person can decide who can copy their work.

  • Gutenberg PG is an online project that offers a digital archive of copyright - free e - books in the public domain. It was started in 1971 by Michael S
  • is the author of that name. In law, the author is the first owner of copyright Writer Journalist Lessig, Lawrence 2015 - 11 - 13 Free Culture. ISBN 978 - 82 - 690182 - 0 - 2
  • Xlibris Corp., copyright 2006 Caleb Johnson pp. 160 162 Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers Indiana: Xlibris Corp., copyright 2006 Caleb
  • may be a bad thing since many web sites include copyrighted lyrics without permission from the copyright holder. The United States Music Publishers Association
  • above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice
  • International Music Score Library Project Raises Copyright Concerns, New York Times, February 22, 2011 Music copyright in the spotlight. BBC News 2 November 2007
  • 15: If copyright law doesn t change, all sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 will enter the public domain in the U.S. Copyright Term and
  • only organization in Japan to manage and protect copyrights in Japan. JASRAC can only manage copyrights inside Japan. As for outside Japan for overseas

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Encyclopedic dictionary


Types of copyright.

Copyright Library University of Bristol. Reproducing UKHO Material What is Copyright? Crown copyright Material from other organisations Period of protection. The Re Use Of Public Sector. Copyright symbol. What is copyright & how can you use it to protect your work?. Easy to understand guide to Copyright Law, explaining the principal legislation covering copyright in the United Kingdom, the types of work protected, duration of​.

Copyright law uk.

Intellectual property: Copyright detailed information. Copyright clause for Insight, Statement of policy, Publishing agreement. Copyright example. Copyright Cortex. Copyright legislation is intended to protect the economic interests of authors, creators and publishers by preventing others from exploiting their hard work and​. Uk copyright act. Copyright Research support Kings College London. The material on this site is subject to Crown copyright protection unless otherwise indicated Re using Crown copyright material © Crown.

Wipo copyright.

FESPA Copyright. The IB has a policy for use of its intellectual property in order to make clear what can and cant be done with IB logos, trademarks and copyright material. Copyright Terms HTC United Kingdom. This guide provides practical advice for University of York staff and students, to help you protect your own copyright and stay legal when using. Copyright basics Copyright explained Library University of Leeds. Copyright is one of the main types of intellectual property. It allows the copyright owner to protect against others copying or reproducing their work. Intellectual. What is copyright The British Library. In short, copyright is a collection of rights that protect your original work. It extends to a variety of creative forms including literary works, music, art, film, software.

What is Copyright? Copyright Aware BBC.

It is important to be aware of copyright and what you can do when using materials for study, research and teaching. Failure to comply with copyright law could. Insight Copyright BINDT. Copyright protects a creators original work and determines how it can be used. This guide explains what you need to know.

Copyright Statement Greencore.

It sets out the rights of the owner, as well as the responsibilities of other people who want to use the work. You can do many things with your copyright work. Introduction to Copyright Licensing UK Hydrographic Office. Copyright is a complex subject. These pages aim to provide information and guidance but should not be taken as legal advice or relied upon as a definitive. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 L.uk. Introduction to Copyright web pages at the University of Birmingham.

Copyright, Disclaimer and Reservation of Rights Elexon.

Copyright is one of the 4 key Intellectual Property Types. It is automatically applied to original work and covers websites, images, and written material. Knowledge Base Frequently Asked Questions DACS. We aim to give you some simple advice on copyright as it relates to ownership and the use and sharing of data in research and higher education.

Copyright Law Oral History Society.

A guidance page on copyright at BCU. Guidance about your responsibilities regarding copyright whilst studying and teaching at BCU. Help! Copyright: a Practical Guide Subject Guides at University of. What does copyright protect? The types of work protected by copyright include: books, novels, technical reports, manuals, paintings, sculptures, photographs,.

Introduction to Copyright The Copyright Hub.

Unless granted permission via educational exception or special licence works protected by copyright cannot be reproduced, distributed, downloaded or otherwise. Copyright FAQs RCOG. Copyright service, Copyright material in Library collections, Electronic data. Copyright of OU websites About The Open University. About copyright. Copyright is an intellectual property right that protects original works, including written, dramatic, musical, and artistic works. Many items in our.

Copyright The University of Nottingham.

Cop is an resource aimed at making UK Copyright Law accessible to creators, media professionals, entrepreneurs, students, and the public. Copyright University of Birmingham Intranet. Parliament encourages you to use material made available by the House of Commons or the House of Lords in which copyright or database right subsists. 4 Reasons 4 Copyright 4iP Council. You can learn more about copyright on CopyrightUser, an independent online resource aimed at making UK Copyright Law accessible to creators, media. Copyright Legal The National Archives. Copyright is a statutory right of ownership of an intellectual property written, printed, graphic, electronic or performance. Copyright law, as laid down in the.

Exceptions to copyright.

IWMs websites are copyright of the Imperial War Museums © IWM, whilst the copyright in the material which is hosted on IWMs websites will belong to IWM as​. UK Copyright Service UK and International Copyright Registration. Copyright registration office. Protect your work from infringement, plus information on intellectual property laws and advice on how to protecting your work. Copyright Library, Special Collections and Museums The. Content and images on FESPA websites, social networks and partner websites are protected by copyright and licensed for use by FESPA and or its partners.

Copyright Library & Learning Resources Birmingham City University.

There are particular circumstances regarding the OpenLearn website the OUs open content initiative see Copyright of OpenLearn website. In accessing. What is Copyright? Copyright Licensing Agency. The material featured on this website is subject to Crown copyright protection and licensed for use under the Open Government Licence unless otherwise. Copyright International Baccalaureate®. Literary works using words or symbols musical works sound recordings and films including videos and DVDs. Copyright arises automatically, as soon as the​. Copyright AGREE Enterprise website. You may with permission reuse the information on this website which is the copyright of the London Ambulance Service NHS Trust free of charge. Reuse includes.

Copyright The University of Edinburgh.

Copyright FAQs. Frequently asked questions about reproducing third party content in a presentation. The information is designed to ensure RCOG conference. Copyright University of Bath. Copyright 2010 2014 The AGREE Research Trust. Information may be cited with appropriate acknowledgement in scientific publications without obtaining. Copyright Library Services Queen Mary University of London. What does copyright protect? The law in the UK defines the things which copyright automatically applies to. Original works, for example writing, music, drama, art.

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